Despite its small landmass Bhutan has a remarkable abundance of flora and fauna and is one of the most biologically diverse regions of the world.
The terrain is incredibly rugged and there are huge variations in altitude. The northern regions of the country consist mostly of snowy mountains and glaciers but range from subalpine conifer forests to broadleaf forests in the central region and dense subtropical forests in the south. This wide-range of climatic conditions allows for an unparalleled array of vegetation and wildlife to thrive within Bhutan.
There are countless varieties of rare plants and endangered animals living within our forests. Additionally the habitat of these animals has been well protected due to the efforts of the government and the people. As part of the country’s conservation efforts official policy dictates that 60% of the country’s landmass must remain forested, however the country currently has around 72% forest cover. Red Pandas, Barking Deer, Golden Langurs, Royal Bengal Tigers, Takins, Sheep and Himalayan Black Bears are just a few of the many rare and exotic animals that can be seen in Bhutan.
The kingdom is also an ornithological hotspot with hundreds of rare and endangered birds inhabiting its lush forests. The Pallas’s Fish Eagle, White bellied Heron, Satyr Tragopan, Grey bellied Tragopan, Ward’s Trogon, Blyth’s King Fisher, Rumped Honey Guide, Purple Cochoa, Rufous Throated Wren Babbler, Red headed Parrot Bill, Chestnut breasted Partridge, Blyth’s Trogon, Wood Snipe and the iconic Black-necked Crane are a few of the birds that can be spotted throughout the kingdom.
Jigme Dorji National Park
With an area of 4,349 sq. km, the Jigme Dorji National Park is the largest protected area in Bhutan. It is one of the most biologically rich areas in the Eastern Himalayan region, and stretches from warm broad-leaved forests to permanent ice fields and glaciers on Bhutan’s north-western border.
The monsoon rains and a varied topographical gradient, from just over 1,000 meters to more than 7,000 meters above sea level, account for this rich plant and animal diversity.
Sacred peaks such as Jomolhari, Tsherimgang and Jichu Drakey are prominent landmarks in the park. Glaciers and glacial lakes are interspersed in the mountains forming important head waters for some of Bhutan’s main rivers.
The alpine region houses numerous flowers such as the national flower blue poppy, edelweiss, orchids and rhododendrons among many others.
Charismatic animal species like the Snow Leopard, Takin, Tiger, Black Bear, Blue Sheep and Red Panda inhabit the forests and mountains of the park. This may be the only place in the world where the Royal Bengal tiger and snow leopard habitats overlap. Most of Bhutan’s most popular trekking routes can be found inside the Jigme Dorji National Park.
Royal Manas National Park
Bhutan’s Crown Jewel, the Manas National Park represents the largest example of tropical and sub-tropical ecosystems in Bhutan.
This park has only recently been opened to the public and offers thousands of animal and plant species, many of which are globally endangered, it is not only the most diverse protected area in the Kingdom but also noted as one of the world’s biologically outstanding parks.
Lying in south central Bhutan, Manas is connected at the southern border with India’s Manas Tiger Reserve, a World Heritage Site. To the north it borders the Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park. Royal Manas was designated a wildlife sanctuary in 1966 making it Bhutan’s oldest protected area. The area was upgraded to a National Park in 1993.
There are wide climate variations in Royal Manas. The May-September monsoons bring up to 5,000mm of rain. Rainfall is negligible in winter and the climate is extremely pleasant from November till March.
Manas is also extremely rich in wildlife species, including the highly endangered Royal Bengal tiger, Asian elephant, greater one-horned rhinoceros, clouded leopard, Himalayan black bear, gangetic dolphin and pangolin. Found virtually nowhere else in the world is the especially rare golden langur, a primate of extraordinary grace and beauty with its long, silky blond fur.
More than 365 species of birds have been officially recorded in Royal Manas National Park with an additional 200 believed to be in residence. Species found here include the globally threatened rufous-necked hornbill, Pallas fishing eagle, great white-bellied heron, spotted wren-babbler, blue-headed rock thrush and emerald cuckoo. Many of the park’s more than 900 types of plants have commercial, medicinal, traditional and religious significance.
WWF and Bhutan’s Nature Conservation Division jointly developed a five-year conservation management plan which includes training and equipping park staff, improving park infrastructure, and supporting biological and socio-economic surveys and park monitoring programs.
Trumshingla National Park
Situated at the very heart of the country and covering 768 sq. km, Thrumshingla National was officially opened in July 1998.
Pristine forests ranging from alpine to subtropical broadleaf combined with dramatic mountains are home to, snow leopards, tigers, red pandas and rare plants. This creates a globally important and unique environment.
With its elevation ranging from less than 1,000 m to more than 4,000 m, and temperatures of between – 21ْ C to 28ْ C, the park has some of the most diverse climatic variations and habitats in the world. The park made news in 2000 when a WWF-supported survey team captured a camera-trap image of a tiger at 3,000 meters – the first photographic evidence that the magnificent creatures exist at such high altitudes. Besides that, the park has 341 species of birds making it truly a birdwatcher’s paradise.
Tourism helps to sustain the lives of the communities within the park, with an effective management plan in place and dedicated park staff along with WWF support. The park is set to remain in pristine condition for generations to come.
Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park
Located in the central part of the country, Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park covers 1,300 sq.km and is the second largest protected area of Bhutan.
High ice peaks fall away to low conifer and broadleaf forests. The park remains one of the largest undisturbed tracks of forest anywhere in the Himalaya’s. The varying altitude and rainfall have created a wide range of climatic conditions, making it home to many species of plants, animals and birds.
Both musk deer and Himalayan black bear can be found here. The golden langur, which is quite common in Bhutan, the rare clouded leopard, the red panda and the Royal Bengal tiger are among some of the many species found here. The eastern side of the park supports about 20% of Bhutan’s tiger population and the park itself forms an important link between the northern and southern tiger populations.
It is also home to 391 bird species of which seven species are among some of the world’s most endangered species. Phobjikha valley, a buffer zone to the park, is the winter habitat of the Black Necked Crane. More than 260 majestic cranes winter in Phobjikha every year.
Wangchuck Wildfile Sanctuary
The Wangchuck Centennial Park was formally inaugurated as a National Park in June 2008. With an area of 4149 sq km it is the largest National Park in the kingdom. Several high mountains such as Mt. Gangkar Puensum are found within the park’s boundaries.
The park is located in the north-central region of Bhutan and encompasses regions of 6 different Dzongkhags. With Bomdeling Wildlife Sanctuary to its East, Jigme Dorji National Park to its West and a continuous biological corridor to its South, the park is a crucial part of the network of protected areas in Bhutan.
Within the park there are two main types of vegetation, Fir trees and Hemlock, Spruce, Juniper trees. It encompasses 3 ecological zones and 6 different habitat types namely cool broad leaf forests, mixed-conifer forests, Fir forests, Juniper forests, Alpine meadows and Scrubs, and Alpine Scree.
The Wangchuck Centennial Park is home to several incredibly rare and protected species such as the Royal Bengal Tiger, Snow leopard, Himalayan Musk Bear.